Keyword

East Africa, IUU fishing, maritime security, ocean governance, ports, West Africa

Abstract

This paper provides an analysis of efforts to improve maritime security in East and West Africa. While maritime issues in general have been largely ignored in both regions over the past decades, they are increasingly recognized due to the potential of the ‘blue economy’. This is highlighted by a look at three specific aspects related to maritime security: offshore oil and gas production, maritime trade, and problems with IUU fishing. While those are not the only three sectors that are relevant in this context, they are useful to illustrate the complex relationships between different actors at sea and to show that maritime developments can have very direct implications on land. Furthermore, most challenges in the maritime environment are transnational by nature, such as oil and gas fields straddling maritime boundaries, migratory fish stocks that are exploited in different jurisdictions or attacks against merchant ships which may impact ports across an entire region. In the final section, the paper underlines similarities and differences in the responses to maritime security challenges in East and West Africa over the past decade. Both regions share some traits that create opportunities to draw on lessons learned, both on the national and the regional level. Several recommendations for different stakeholders are also included in the final section of the paper.


Download Full Text Here

References

Afenu, Sandra Esinam. (2019). First phase of Tema port expansion project to be operational in June. Joy Online. Available at: 

https://www.myjoyonline.com/business/2019/february-25th/first-phase-of-tema-port-expansion-project-to-be-operational-in-june.php.
Africa Progress Panel (2014). Grain, Fish, Money – Financing Africa’s Green and Blue Revolutions. Geneva: Africa Progress Panel.
African Development Bank. (2011). Eastern Africa: Regional Integration Strategy Paper 2011-2015. Available at:

https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Policy-Documents/East%20Africa%20-%20Rev%20RISP%20.pdf.
African Union. (2019). AfCFTA Agreement secures minimum threshold of 22 ratification as Sierra Leone and the Saharawi Republic deposit instruments. Available at: 

https://au.int/en/pressreleases/20190429/afcfta-agreement-secures-minimum-threshold-22-ratification-sierra-leone-and.
Agnew, Pearce, Pramod et. al. (2009).” Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing.” In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 4:2. 1-8.

Airahuobhor, Andrew. (2015). Is Nigeria’s territorial water safe? Daily Independent. Available at: 

https://allafrica.com/stories/201502270895.html.
Akyeampong, Emmanuel. “Indigenous knowledge and maritime fishing in West Africa: The case of Ghana.” In: Boon, Emmanuel and Hens, Luc (eds.). Indigenous knowledge systems and sustainable development: relevance for Africa. Delhi: Kamla-Raj Enterprises, 2007.

Allgeier, Peter. (2014). „Trade and environmental sustainability: The case for addressing fisheries subsidies.” In: Bridges Africa, Vol. 3:4.
Amanam, Usua U. (2017) Natural Gas in East Africa: Domestic and Regional Use. Stanford: The Standford Natural Gas Initiative. Available at: 

https://ngi.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/NGI_EAfrica_LitReview%284-17%29.pdf.
Anaeto, Emeka and Oritse, Godwin. (2018). Nigeria protests global piracy reports. Vanguard. Available at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2018/08/nigeria-protests-imos-piracy-reports/.
Bax, Pauline. (2018). Chinese-built port evokes dreams of El Dorado in Cameroon. Bloomberg. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2018-08-29/china-stakes-its-claim-on-west-africa.
Beatley, Meaghan and Edwards, Sam. (2018). Overfished: In Senegal, empty nets lead to hunger and violence. GlobalPost Investigations. Available at: https://gpinvestigations.pri.org/overfished-in-senegal-empty-nets-lead-to-hunger-and-violence-e3b5d0c9a686.
Belhabib, Koutub, Sall et. al. (2014).” Fisheries catch misreporting and its implcations.” In: Fisheries Research, Vol. 151. 1-11.
Benkenstein, Alex (2013). Small-scale fisheries in a modernising economy: opportunities and challenges in Mozambique. Johannesburg: SAIIA.
Blédé, Barthelemy (2015). Benin’s maritime security challenges in the Gulf of Guinea. Dakar: Institute for Security Studies.
Blédé, Barthélemy. (2017). Fighting rising piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. ISS Today. Available at: https://issafrica.org/iss-today/fighting-rising-piracy-in-the-gulf-of-guinea.
Blédé, Barthélemy and Walker, Timothy. 2016. Fulfilling the promise of the Lomé maritime summit. ISS Today. Available at: https://issafrica.org/iss-today/fulfilling-the-promise-of-the-lome-maritime-summit.
Copeland, Douglas. (2014). “Accounting for net losses.” In: The World Today, Vol. 70:1.
Cotterill, Joseph. (2019) Mozambique’s ruling party closes ranks over ‘tuna bond’ scandal. Financial Times. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/4c7e8b30-15ab-11e9-a581-4ff78404524e.
Crooks, Ed. (2018). Mozambique to become a gas supplier to world. Available at: 

https://www.ft.com/content/d34685b2-7995-11e8-bc55-50daf11b720d.
Csete, Joanne and Sánchez, Constanza (2013). Telling the story of drugs in West Africa: The newest front in a losing war? Swansea: Global Drug Policy Observatory.
Debrie, Jean. (2012). “The West African port system: global insertion and regional particularities.” In: EchoGéo, No. 20.
de Coning, Eve and Witbooi, Emma. (2015). ‘Towards a new ‘fisheries crime’ paradigm: South Africa as an illustrative example’. Marine Policy, Vol. 60. 208-215.s
Deloitte. (2018). Africa Oil & Gas State of Play. Available at: 

https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/xe/Documents/energy-resources/africa_oil_gas_state_of_play_Nov2018.pdf. 12-14.
Dewar, Bob. (2016). On African coastlines, prosperity and security go together. Chatham House. Available at: 

https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/african-coastlines-prosperity-and-security-go-together#.
Doumbouya, Camara, Mamie et. al. (2017).” Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring control and surveillance of illegal fishing: The case of West Africa.” In: Frontiers in Marine Science, Vol. 4:50.
Doward, Jamie. (2013). How cigarette smuggling fuels Africa’s Islamist violence. The Observer. Available at: 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jan/27/cigarette-smuggling-mokhtar-belmokhtar-terrorism.
Dua, Jatin. (2011). Piracy and the narrative of recognition: The view from Somaliland. Social Science Research Council. Available at: 

https://www.ssrc.org/pages/Piracy-and-the-Narrative-of-Recognition-The-View-from-Somaliland/.
Dudley, Dominic. (2018). East Africa becomes a testing ground for UAE and Qatar as they battle for influence and opportunity. Forbes. Available at: 

https://www.forbes.com/sites/dominicdudley/2018/04/04/uae-qatar-horn-of-africa-proxy-dispute/#316cb5366ad2.
EUCAP Somalia. (2019). Somaliland Coast Guard ready to exercise its powers across territorial waters. Available at:

https://www.eucap-som.eu/somaliland-coast-guard-ready-to-exercise-its-powers-across-territorial-waters/.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). International Plan of Action to prevent, deter, and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IPOA-IUU). Rome: FAO / Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2001. 2-3.
Fraser, John. (2018). Africa on brink of upstream surge. Natural Gas World. Available at: https://www.naturalgasworld.com/africa-on-brink-of-upstream-surge-ngw-magazine-66036.
Gibbah, Godfred Blay. (2019). Resource FEU to deal with illegal fishing at sea – Tema chief fisherman. Ghanaian Times. Available at: https://allafrica.com/stories/201901150710.html.
Glaser, Roberts, Mazurek et. al.(2015) Securing Somali Fisheries. Denver: One Earth Future Foundation.
Global Environment Facility. (2014). Report on the sixth replenishment of the GEF Trust Fund. Fifth GEF Assembly, 28-29 May 2014. Available at: 

https://www.thegef.org/sites/default/files/council-meeting-documents/GEF.A.5.07.Rev_.01_Report_on_the_Sixth_Replenishment_of_the_GEF_Trust_Fund_May_22_2014_1.pdf.
Haenlein, Cathy (2017). Below the Surface: How Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing Threatens our Security. London: RUSI.
Hassan, Adam Abdou. (2018). The Blue Economy has become an indisputable reality for African countries. ID4D. Available at: https://ideas4development.org/en/blue-economy-reality-africa/.
Hawkes, Roger (2012). “Securing the offshore oil industry in the Gulf of Guinea.” 143, in: Berube, Claude and Cullen, Patrick (eds.) Maritime Private Security – market responses to piracy, terrorism and waterborne security risks in the 21st century. London: Routledge, 138-149.
Hayduk, Daniel. (2011). Joining forces to fight piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. The New Humanitarian. Available at: http://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/news/2011/11/29/joining-forces-fight-piracy-gulf-guinea.
Hills, Alice. (2016). “Off-road policing: communications technology and government authority in Somaliland.” In: International Affairs, Vol. 92:5.
Hoffmann, Nimi and Hendricks, Fred. (2018). „African perspectives on corruption. “In: Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 36: 4.
Husband, Laura. (2013). High risk, high reward: talking offshore oil security with Drum Cussac. Offshore Technology. Available at: https://www.offshore-technology.com/features/featureoffshore-oil-security-piracy-terrorist-attack-prevention-drum-cussac/.
IISS (International Institute for Strategic Studies) (2019). The Military Balance. Chapter Nine: Sub-Saharan Africa. London: IISS.
IMB (International Maritime Bureau) (1995). A third report into the incidence of piracy and armed robbery from merchant ships. London: International Maritime Bureau.
JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency). (2018). Japanese ODA loan for the Toamasina port development project: long-expected groundbreaking ceremony held in Madagascar. Available at: 

https://www.jica.go.jp/english/news/press/2018/180427_05.html.
Jones, Russel and Viros, Camille. (2014). Foundations for growth – infrastructure investment in emerging markets. Trafigura White Paper. 25. Available at: 

https://www.trafigura.com/media/2359/traf2429_14_llewellyn_infrastructure_paper_sp_lr.pdf.
Kavashe, Rita. (2015). Colonial boundaries continue to stifle intra-Africa trade. The East African. Available at: https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/OpEd/comment/Colonial-boundaries-continue-to-stifle-intra-Africa-trade-/-/434750/2859848/-/ts9y54z/-/index.html.
Kazungu, Kalume. (2019). First ship set to dock at Lamu berth in November. Daily Nation. Available at: https://www.nation.co.ke/business/First-ship-set-to-dock-at-Lamu-berth-in-November/996-4971860-2tc5q8/index.html.
Kende-Robb, Caroline. (2014). Why illegal fishing off Africa’s coast must be stopped. The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2014/jun/19/why-illegal-fishing-africa-must-be-stopped
Klein, Natalie (2011). Maritime Security and the Law of the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kobri, Borgia and Dosso, Zeinab. (2019). Côte d’Ivoire: $1.4 billion to be invested in Abidjan port by 2020. Ecofin Agency. Available at: https://www.ecofinagency.com/public-management/2802-39733-cote-d-ivoire-1-4-billion-to-be-invested-in-abidjan-port-by-2020.
Kraska, James and Pedrozo, Raul (2003). International Maritime Security Law. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.
Kyrou, Christos and Wallace, Kaade. (2014). “The Gulf of Guinea: Maritime Piracy’s New Global Nerve Center.” Fair Observer. Available at: 

https://www.fairobserver.com/region/middle_east_north_africa/gulf-guinea-maritime-piracys-global-nerve-center-18429/.
Larsen, Jakob Paaske. (2019). EU, China and the U.S. needs to support counter-piracy operations in the Gulf of Guinea. BIMCO. Available at: https://www.bimco.org/news/priority-news/20190108-call-for-gog-counter-piracy.
Low, A. Anthony and Marcus, Harold G. (2019). Eastern Africa. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/place/eastern-Africa.
Manek, Nizar. 2018. Eritrea mulls port as Ethiopia rapprochement spurs investors. Bloomberg. Available at: 

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-23/eritrea-mulls-new-port-as-ethiopia-rapprochement-spurs-investors.
Martin, Guy. (2014). Operation Copper now only with SA and Mozambique. Defence Web. Available at: https://www.defenceweb.co.za/security/maritime-security/operation-copper-now-only-with-sa-and-mozambique/?catid=108%3Amaritime-security.
Maylie, Devon and Gilbert, Daniel. (2014). Anadarko’s controversial Mozambique project shows appetite for natural gas. Wall Street Journal. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/anadarkos-controversial-mozambique-project-shows-appetite-for-natural-gas-1407810602.
McCaskie, T.C. and Fage, John D. (2019). Western Africa. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/place/western-Africa.
Mensah, Thomas. (2004).” The place of the ISPS Code in the legal international regime.” WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, Vol. 3:1. 17-18.
Mooney, Turloch. (2016). Piracy and corruption stalk West Africa supply chains. Journal of Commerce. Available at: https://www.joc.com/port-news/international-ports/piracy-and-corruption-stalk-west-africa-supply-chains_20160407.html.
Murphy, Martin (2009). Small boats, weak states, dirty money: piracy and maritime terrorism in the modern world. London, Hurst Publishing.
Nazerali, Sean (2014). Improving the Quality, Capacity and Compliance of Environmental Licensing Processes in Mozambique: The Case of the Oil and Gas Industry. Johannesburg: SAIIA.
Ncube, Mthuli and Baker, Michael Lyon. (2011). “Beyond pirates and drugs: unlocking Africa’s maritime potential and economic development.” In: African Security Review, Vol. 20:1.
Nunoo, Asiedu, Amador et. al. (2014) Reconstruction of Marine Fisheries Catches for Ghana, 1950-2010. Working Paper #2014-13. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.
Oirere, Shem. (2017). Grand plan – Dar es Salaam starts port expansion. Fairplay. Available at: 

https://fairplay.ihs.com/dredging/article/4293576/grand-plan-dar-es-salaam-starts-port-expansion
Oirere, Shem. (2018). Momentum building offshore Senegal. Offshore Engineer. Available at: 

https://www.oedigital.com/news/461011-momentum-building-offshore-senegal.
Onuoha, Freedom C. (2012) Piracy and Maritime Security in the Gulf of Guinea: Nigeria as a Microcosm. Doha: Al Jazeera Centre for Studies.
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (2019). OECD.Stat. Available at: 

https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=AEO11_COUNTRYNOTES_TAB4_EN.
Phillips, Andrew and Sharman (2015), J.C. International Order in Diversity: War, Trade and Rule in the Indian Ocean. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Potgieter, Johan and Walker, Timothy (2015). “The 2050 African Integrated Maritime Strategy (AIMS): Content and Progress.” In: Mandrup, Thomas and Vrey, Francois (eds.) Towards Good Order at Sea: African Experiences. Stellenbosch: Sun Media.
PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2018). Taking on tomorrow: Africa oil & gas review. Available at: 

https://www.pwc.co.za/en/assets/pdf/africa-oil-and-gas-review-2018.pdf.
Republic of Ghana. (2014). National Plan of Action to prevent, deter, and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.
Rogers, David. (2017). Africa’s port revolution: West Coast to welcome the world. Global Construction Review. Available at: http://www.globalconstructionreview.com/sectors/africas-ports-revolution-w7est-coa7st-welc7ome/.
Rumley, Dennis (ed.) (2013) The Indian Ocean Region: Security, Stability and Sustainability in the 21st Century. Melbourne: Australia India Institute.
Scheffler, Alessandro (2010). Piracy – threat or nuisance? Rome: Nato Defense College.
Siebels, Dirk (2019). Maritime Security in East and West Africa: A Tale of Two Regions. London, Palgrave Macmillan.
Signé, Landry. (2018). Why Africa’s free trade area offers so much promise. The Conversation. Available at: 

https://theconversation.com/why-africas-free-trade-area-offers-so-much-promise-93827.
Slavina, Svitlana. (2014). „Tanker KERALA hijacking is on investigation.” FleetMon. Available at: 

https://www.fleetmon.com/maritime-news/2014/3098/tanker-kerala-hijacking-investigation/.
Spooner, Samantha. (2015). Fishy business in West African waters – and the bad guys are not always the usual suspects. Mail & Guardian Africa. Available at: 

https://whalesandmarinefauna.wordpress.com/2015/05/29/fishy-business-in-west-african-waters-and-the-bad-guys-are-not-always-the-usual-suspects/.
Stoddard, Ed. (2016). Prospect of offshore oil offers mixed blessings for Somalia. Reuters. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-africa-oil-somalia/prospect-of-offshore-oil-offers-mixed-blessing-for-somalia-idUSKBN1321IW.
Tharoor, Ishan. (2009). How Somalia’s fishermen became pirates. Time. Available at: 

http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1892376,00.html.
Till, Geoffrey (1994). „Developments in Maritime Security.” 5, in: Cozens, Peter (ed.) New Zealand’s Maritime Environment and Security. Wellington: Centre for Strategic Studies.
Till, Geoffrey (2013). Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. London: Routledge. PP 310-311.
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) (2014). Maritime Piracy – Part I: An overview of trends, costs and trade-related implications. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) (2015). Review of Maritime Transport 2015. New York and Geneva: United Nations.
UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). (2018). Maritime trade and Africa. Press Release. Available at: https://unctad.org/en/pages/PressRelease.aspx?OriginalVersionID=476.
United Nations Statistics Division. (2019). Methodology – Standard country or area codes for statistical use. Available at: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/methodology/m49/.
UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) (2013). Transnational Organized Crime in West Africa. Vienna: UNODC.
UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime). (2017). Stretching the fishnet: identifying opportunities to address fisheries crime. Conference edition. Available at: 

https://fishcrime.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Stretching-the-Fishnet.pdf.
Walker, Timothy. (2011). Stop dumping hazardous waste on Africa’s shores. Institute for Security Studies. Available at: https://issafrica.org/iss-today/stop-dumping-hazardous-waste-on-africas-shores.
Walzel, Brian. (2019). New Year Signals New Potential in West Africa. E&P Hart Energy. Available at: https://www.epmag.com/new-year-signals-new-potential-west-africa-1729871.
Ward, Andrew. (2018). Discoveries in Senegal focus attention on avoiding the ‘oil curse’. Financial Times. Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/d979a1e0-2ea8-11e8-97ec-4bd3494d5f14.
World Bank. (2019). Oil rents (% of GDP). Available at: 

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PETR.RT.ZS?end=2016&start=2012&year_low_desc=true.
World Bank. (2019b). GDP (current US$). Available at: 

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2017&start=2016